Studies and research

Urban Forests and Green Areas as Nature-Based Solutions for Brownfield Redevelopment: A Case Study from Brescia Municipal Area (Italy)

  • 2022

This study analyses two alternative NBS intervention scenarios for the regeneration of a brownfield site in Brescia (Italy). The aim of this research is to contribute to expanding the existing literature on the effective assessment of NBS and to provide an example of how research and practice can be integrated to inform urban management activities.

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In recent years, cities are going through major changes and facing major challenges in terms of sustainability. In order to promote the green transition, today many urban centres needs to plan the regeneration of brownfield areas. In this context, Nature-Based Solutions (NBSs) are often considered an effective tool to promote the green transition

Green Infrastructure and Climate Change Adaptation

  • 2022

The volume “Green Infrastructure and Climate Change Adaptation” was produced with the aim to illustrate the benefits of this type of infrastructure. Alessandro Leonardi from Etifor has contributed to this publication with an article on how to design an appropriate and cost-effective forest green infrastructure for water payment schemes to protect and improve water quality.

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The term “Green Infrastructure” (GI) has mainly been discussed from an adaptation strategy perspective in cities and urban areas. However, as this volume shows, GI are relevant for rural and suburban areas too, proving many positive benefits. One of the most important characteristics of GIs is their multifunctionality, as they help maintain biodiversity

Uforest – Training needs’ assessment and stakeholder analysis

  • 2021

Our team worked on the “Uforest Training Needs’ Assessment and Stakeholder Analysis” report. It provides an overview of the existing demand on training needs to promote innovation and entrepreneurship in urban forestry and Nature Based Solutions (NBS).


Urban forests represent an innovative solution, but there are still few specific training opportunity on this subject.

EU Market Outlooks on Green Care

  • 2021

Our team worked on four EU Market Outlooks, one for each Green4C’s project thematic sectors: Forest-based care; Urban green care; Social agriculture; and Green care tourism. The market outlooks investigate and provide market figures and business models associated to the four main Green Care markets. The different outlooks are separate and will be published on the reference page at different times.


Nature for Health, Well-being and Social Inclusion

Non-wood forest products for people, nature and the green economy

  • 2021

This white paper is a call to recognise, and to leverage, the potential of NWFP to contribute to policy priorities in Europe, especially in relation to rural development, nature conservation, and human well-being. It shows how leveraging NWFP potential could contribute to the successful implementation of the European Green Deal, and to a greener and more sustainable post-COVID economy restart.

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Recommendations for policy priorities in Europe. A white paper based on lessons learned from around the Mediterranean.

Forests for Water Services: A Step-by-Step Guide for Payment Schemes

  • 2021

The purpose of “A guide to Forest–Water Management” is to improve the global information base on the protective functions of forests for soil and water. Find out more.

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Guidance on designing appropriate and cost-effective forests for water payment schemes that support tree planting and forest management to protect and improve water quality.

Social innovation

  • 2021
  • Social innovation
  • Local development
  • 2021
  • B.Sless; C.Burlando; E.Pisani; L.Secco; N.Polman

This paper explores the contested concept of social innovation by using the ideas of discourse and framing as a lens to explore the contested definitions of social innovation.


A preliminary exploration of a contested concept

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