Studies and research

Forza della natura Quaderno 44 Fondazione CRC

  • 2023

This publication develops and describes the climate change debate with up-to-date references and evidence from the international and national scientific community. Find out more!

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The "Quaderno 44 || Forza della natura. Le sfide del cambiamento climatico e le nature-based solutions territoriali" ( Force of Nature. The Challenges of Climate Change and Territorial Nature-Based Solutions) develops and describes the debate on climate change with updated references and evidence proposed by the international and national scientific community. The provincial

Urban Forests and Green Areas as Nature-Based Solutions for Brownfield Redevelopment: A Case Study from Brescia Municipal Area (Italy)

  • 2022

This study analyses two alternative NBS intervention scenarios for the regeneration of a brownfield site in Brescia (Italy). The aim of this research is to contribute to expanding the existing literature on the effective assessment of NBS and to provide an example of how research and practice can be integrated to inform urban management activities.

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In recent years, cities are going through major changes and facing major challenges in terms of sustainability. In order to promote the green transition, today many urban centres needs to plan the regeneration of brownfield areas. In this context, Nature-Based Solutions (NBSs) are often considered an effective tool to promote the green transition

Green Infrastructure and Climate Change Adaptation

  • 2022

The volume “Green Infrastructure and Climate Change Adaptation” was produced with the aim to illustrate the benefits of this type of infrastructure. Alessandro Leonardi from Etifor has contributed to this publication with an article on how to design an appropriate and cost-effective forest green infrastructure for water payment schemes to protect and improve water quality.

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The term “Green Infrastructure” (GI) has mainly been discussed from an adaptation strategy perspective in cities and urban areas. However, as this volume shows, GI are relevant for rural and suburban areas too, proving many positive benefits. One of the most important characteristics of GIs is their multifunctionality, as they help maintain biodiversity

Forests for Water Services: A Step-by-Step Guide for Payment Schemes

  • 2021

The purpose of “A guide to Forest–Water Management” is to improve the global information base on the protective functions of forests for soil and water. Find out more.

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Guidance on designing appropriate and cost-effective forests for water payment schemes that support tree planting and forest management to protect and improve water quality.

How can National Forest Funds catalyse the provision of ecosystem services

  • 2021

National Forest Funds (NFFs) are a significant source of funding for the forestry sector. In this paper, we analysed three NFF case studies (Costa Rica, Morocco, and Vietnam) in order to assess, with operational examples, if and to what extent NFFs already operate on Payments for Ecosystem Services (PES) or PES-like mechanisms.


National forest funds and Payments for Ecosystem Services in Costa Rica, Morocco and Vietnam.

RAF 2019 Italy Bosco Limite. The forest that defends against climate change

  • 2019

The first “Report on the state of Italian forests” aims to provide a global, detailed and timely picture of the state of Italian forests and its supply chains. The article, written by the Etifor team in collaboration with Davide Pettenella, presents a successful case study: Bosco Limite.


In recent decades Italian society has gradually lost sight of the importance of forests, a green lung that covers about 40% of the national territory.We have also forgotten how the national forest system, with its productive, environmental and socio-cultural chains, still represents a vital fulcrum of the country today. In this context, the first "Report

Valuing forest ecosystem services a training manual for planners and project developers

  • 2019

The aim of this manual, published by FAO, is to enhance understanding of ecosystem services and their valuation. Most of the examples and case studies presented herein, therefore, are tailored to the Bangladesh context, but the general concepts, approaches and methods can be applied to a broad spectrum of situations.


The aim of this manual is to enhance understanding of ecosystem services and their valuation. The specific target group comprises governmental officers in planning units and field-level officers and practitioners in key government departments in Bangladesh responsible for project development, including the Ministry of Environment and Forests and its agencies. Most of the examples and

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